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雄性乌贼战斗时不会虚张声势

来源: 英语作文网 时间: 2016-07-31 阅读:
Male cuttlefish1 do not bluff2. When their body language shows they are agitated3, they are. This was one of the findings from a study on the giant Australian cuttlefish in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, led by Alexandra Schnell of Macquarie University in Australia. Animals have different ways to show aggression4 during confrontations5. Some animals try avoiding actual hand-to-hand fighting to reduce the risk of injury or even death. They prefer settling differences by using a repertoire7 of hierarchical agonistic or threat displays that signal their fighting ability or aggressive intent. 
 
Male giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) are known for their spectacular displays of aggression when jostling over females during the breeding season. These include rapid changes of skin colour and particular body movements. Fights can last up to twenty minutes but, more often than not, they do not include any real physical contact other than a bit of pushing and grappling. 
 
To further investigate the aggressive behavior of cuttlefish, Schnell's team combined field observations with the use of a video playback technique. They found that giant Australian cuttlefish produce multiple displays that convey a graded series of threats during contests between males of the same size. The early stages of such interactions predict which displays will be performed later in a confrontation6. In turn, these later displays reliably predict the chances of any physical aggression.
 
In the field, Schnell's team observed how males gradually progress from the initial low-risk visual signalling stage to the high-risk one, which entails8 actual physical aggression. Low-risk behavior is typically performed at a distance of more than a meter away, and seldom stimulates9 physical aggression in an opponent. 
 
During video playback sessions, males were shown life-sized videos of other cuttlefish in various stages of aggression. It was found that during the low-risk stage, cuttlefish use frontal displays to assess their opponents' level of aggression. The signaller faces his opponent. His mantle10 is down and out of sight of the rival, while his arms are typically white and move slowly.



  
1 cuttlefish     
n.乌贼,墨鱼
参考例句:
  • I have no idea about how to prepare those cuttlefish and lobsters.我对如何烹调那些乌贼和龙虾毫无概念。
  • The cuttlefish spurts out dark ink when it is in danger.乌鲗遇到危险的时候会喷出黑色液体。


  • 2 bluff     
    v.虚张声势,用假象骗人;n.虚张声势,欺骗
    参考例句:
  • His threats are merely bluff.他的威胁仅仅是虚张声势。
  • John is a deep card.No one can bluff him easily.约翰是个机灵鬼。谁也不容易欺骗他。


  • 3 agitated     
    adj.被鼓动的,不安的
    参考例句:
  • His answers were all mixed up,so agitated was he.他是那样心神不定,回答全乱了。
  • She was agitated because her train was an hour late.她乘坐的火车晚点一个小时,她十分焦虑。


  • 4 aggression     
    n.进攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
    参考例句:
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。


  • 5 confrontations     
    n.对抗,对抗的事物( confrontation的名词复数 )
    参考例句:
  • At times, this potential has escalated into actual confrontations. 有时,这一矛盾升级为实际的对抗。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
  • These confrontations and uncertainties were bing played out for the first time on a global scale. 所有这一切对抗和不稳定,第一次在全球范围内得到充分的表演。 来自辞典例句


  • 6 confrontation     
    n.对抗,对峙,冲突
    参考例句:
  • We can't risk another confrontation with the union.我们不能冒再次同工会对抗的危险。
  • After years of confrontation,they finally have achieved a modus vivendi.在对抗很长时间后,他们最后达成安宁生存的非正式协议。


  • 7 repertoire     
    n.(准备好演出的)节目,保留剧目;(计算机的)指令表,指令系统, <美>(某个人的)全部技能;清单,指令表
    参考例句:
  • There is an extensive repertoire of music written for the flute.有很多供长笛演奏的曲目。
  • He has added considerably to his piano repertoire.他的钢琴演奏曲目大大增加了。


  • 8 entails     
    使…成为必要( entail的第三人称单数 ); 需要; 限定继承; 使必需
    参考例句:
  • The job entails a lot of hard work. 这工作需要十分艰苦的努力。
  • This job entails a lot of hard work. 这项工作需要十分努力。


  • 9 stimulates     
    v.刺激( stimulate的第三人称单数 );激励;使兴奋;起兴奋作用,起刺激作用,起促进作用
    参考例句:
  • Exercise stimulates the body. 运动促进身体健康。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Alcohol stimulates the action of the heart. 酒刺激心脏的活动。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》


  • 10 mantle     
    n.斗篷,覆罩之物,罩子;v.罩住,覆盖,脸红
    参考例句:
  • The earth had donned her mantle of brightest green.大地披上了苍翠欲滴的绿色斗篷。
  • The mountain was covered with a mantle of snow.山上覆盖着一层雪。



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